7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat and 1/2 tsp salt = 7/8 c Lard plus 1/2 tsp salt = 1 c margarine

HEAVY CREAM (will not work for whipped cream): 2/3 cup dairy alternative(i.e. soy milk or prepared Dari-free)+1/3 cup melted margarine or canola oil

LIGHT CREAM (will not work for whipped cream): 3/4 cup dairy alternative(i.e. soy milk or prepared Dari-free)+1 /4 cup melted margarine or canola oil

BUTTERMILK: 1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar(or lemon juice)+ enough dairy alternative to equal one cup--- allow to stand for 4-6 minutes before adding to any recipe


• 1 cup light cream alternative or dairy free coffee creamer (carefully check ingredients, many do contain milk proteins)
• 1 cup rice or soy concentrate, undiluted
• Soy, rice, or non-dairy powder mixed double strength to equal 1 cup


1/2 cup powdered dairy alternative (i.e. Dari-free), +3/4 cup sugar, +2 tablespoon margarine, + ½ teaspoon xanthan or guar gum.
Combine all ingredients, mix well. Bring to slow boil over medium heat, stirring constantly. Boil for one minute, or until thick and bubbly, stirring constantly. Chill before adding to recipe.


• chips semisweet 1 oz = 1 oz sweet cooking chocolate
• semisweet 1 2/3 oz = 1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp sugar
• 6 oz package = 1 c Chocolate
• Unsweetened 1 oz or square = 3 tbsp cocoa plus 1 tbsp fat
• Chocolate, 1-2/3 ounces * 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate plus semisweet 4 teaspoons sugar

Sour Cream or Yogurt Substitute (Baking purposes)- 3/4 cup buttermilk substitute + 1/3 cup margarine


A combination of flours works best for most wheat free baking applications. Addition of xanthan gum or guar gum is also a useful addition for gluten free baking. The gum helps to eliminate the crumbliness associated with most gluten free baked goods.


• 1 and 1/3 cups ground rolled oats
• 1 and 1/8 cups oat flour
• 1 cup rye meal
• 1 1/ 4cups rye flour
• 1 cup potato flour
• 5/8 cup potato starch
• 7/8 cup buckwheat (1 cup minus 2 TBS)


The following quantities are equivalent to 1 tablespoon all purpose wheat flour:
• 1/2 TBS cornstarch
• 1/2 TBS potato starch
• 1 TBS tapioca flour
• 1 & ½ TBS arrowroot


Baking Powder (corn free)- 1/ 2 teaspoon cream of tartar, plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda

Or omit 1 / 2 cup Liquid and replace with 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk substitute as replacement for omitted Liquid in recipe)

Corn Syrup- light variety- 1 cup + 1 tablespoon granulated sugar, plus 1/4 cup water

Dark variety- 1 cup + 1 tablespoon brown sugar, plus 1/4 cup water

Maple syrup and honey may also be used as a corn syrup replacement

Confectioner’s sugar (corn free)- 1 1/2 tablespoons tapioca or potato starch, plus enough granulated sugar to equal one cup. Process on high speed of blender for 45 seconds or until powdered. Store unused portion in an airtight container


Any of the following are equivalent to 1 egg (select the proper replacement by determining the function of egg in recipe- i.e. binder, or emulsifier, etc...) Note: The replacement that works well in one application may not work well in a different application.

Also Note- Egg substitutes sold in most supermarkets do contain egg products and should not be confused with egg replacements (Ener-G Egg Replacer is egg free.)

1 tablespoon ground flaxseed meal + 3 tablespoons water + 1 tablespoon canola (or other cooking oil) oil + 1 teaspoon baking powder + 1 teaspoon tapioca or potato or corn starch- Combine using a whisk in a medium sized bowl, the ingredients will expand. Allow to stand five minutes, and whisk again before adding.

Note: If replacing egg whites, omit oil

1/ 4 teaspoon agar powder + 1 / 4 cup water + 1 teaspoon baking powder- Whisk before adding to recipe

1-1/2 teaspoons of Ener-G Egg Replacer plus 2 tablespoons of water

1 / 2 tablespoon agar flakes + 1 / 4 cup water + 1 teaspoon baking powder- In a microwave safe container, combine water and agar; cook on high for 45 seconds. Carefully remove and whisk baking powder into mixture. Use caution, the baking powder causes a rapid expansion of the liquid and has a tendency to foam over.

1 /4 cup tofu (whipped in blender or beaten prior to adding to recipe)

1 tablespoon flaxseed meat plus 3 tablespoons water replaces one egg (combine and allow to stand for 3-5 minutes, or until gelantized)

1 /4 cup banana or other fruit puree (whipped or beaten)

2 tablespoons liquid + 1 tablespoon potato or tapioca starch + 1 /2 tablespoon shortening + 3 /4 teaspoon baking powder

1 tablespoon unflavored gelatin dissolved in 1 tablespoon cold water + 2
tablespoons boiling water (beat until foamy and thickened)

1 tablespoon canola or other mild flavored oil + 1 tablespoon apple cider or wine vinegar + 1 teaspoon baking powder + 1 teaspoon starch + enough carbonated water to equal 1 /4 cup (combine in a medium size bowl- the ingredients will increase in volume as baking soda and vinegar react. Whisk, then add per instructions.